Ichthyaetus audouinii Payraudeau, 1826
Syn.: Larus audouinii Payraudeau, 1826
Common names: Audouin's gull [En], Goéland d'Audouin [Fr], Adouins Meeuw [Nl], Korallenmöve [De], Gabbiano corso [It], Gaviota de Andouin [Es], Αιγαιόγλαρος, Νησόγλαρος [Gr], Ada Martısı [Tu].
IUCN Status: LC (Least Concern)
Dipkarpaz (Ριζοκάρπασο), İSKELE (Τρίκωμο) ● Cyprus
Description: Il is a medium sized gull of 48-52 cm, with pale grey upperparts, resembling a small European herring gull.
Adult has distinctive bill at close range dark reddish with pale tip unlike any of the larger gulls. Rump, underwing flanks, sides of breast, and hindneck are washed with pale grey, contrasting in good conditions with the whiter head.
The legs are grey-green and iris dark. It takes four years to reach adult plumage. Juveniles have a brown head that fades to white with age.
Biology: This species, unlike many large gulls, rarely scavenges, but is a specialist fish eater, and is therefore strictly coastal and pelagic. This bird will feed at night, often well out to sea, but also slowly patrols close into beaches, occasionally dangling its legs to increase drag.
It breeds on small islands colonially or alone, laying 2-3 eggs on a ground nest.
It is a long-lived species with high adult survival and relatively low fertility. Adult annual survival is estimated at 0.95 (Oro et al. 1999, 2004, Tavecchia et al. 2007).
Habitat: Colonies are located on exposed rocky cliffs and on offshore islands or islets, normally not more than 50 m above sea level (Cramp and Simmons 1983). The Ebro delta (Spain) colony is located on saltmarsh and a sandy peninsula (Olsen and Larsson 2003). In the Aegean it breeds on uninhabited islands sloping gently to the sea and covered with large stones, eryngo Eryngium, grass and low bushes of Pistacia lentiscus (Cramp and Simmons 1983). Altitude ranges from close to sea-level to 100 m, vegetation cover from bare rocks to 85% bush cover.
Distribution: Mediterranean and the western coast of Saharan Africa.
Conservation: The global population is estimated to number 63,900-66,900 individuals (G. Eken in litt. 1999, N. Baccetti in litt. 2008, D. Portolou in litt. 2010). The most recent estimate for the European population is 43,000-44,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). This represents a significant increase from an estimated population of 1,000 pairs in 1975 and is thought to be a result of the increased availability mainly of effectively protected areas during the 1980s, and secondly of discarded fish from the trawlers.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015
Wikipedia, Audouin’s gull