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Argynnis paphia Linnaeus, 1758 ♀

Argynnis paphia-F-Hamoir2.jpg <i><b>Bembecia ichneumoniformis</b></i> Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 ♀||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/2011/02/21/20110221213125-bf74573f-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Argynnis paphia</b></i> Linnaeus, 1758 ♀||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/2011/02/21/20110221204721-89b2b4f9-th.jpg><i><b>Bembecia ichneumoniformis</b></i> Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 ♀||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/2011/02/21/20110221213125-bf74573f-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Argynnis paphia</b></i> Linnaeus, 1758 ♀||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/2011/02/21/20110221204721-89b2b4f9-th.jpg><i><b>Bembecia ichneumoniformis</b></i> Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 ♀||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/2011/02/21/20110221213125-bf74573f-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Argynnis paphia</b></i> Linnaeus, 1758 ♀||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/2011/02/21/20110221204721-89b2b4f9-th.jpg><i><b>Bembecia ichneumoniformis</b></i> Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 ♀||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/2011/02/21/20110221213125-bf74573f-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Argynnis paphia</b></i> Linnaeus, 1758 ♀||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/2011/02/21/20110221204721-89b2b4f9-th.jpg>

Argynnis paphia Linnaeus, 1758 ♀
Common names: Silver-washed Fritillary [En], Tabac d’Espagne [Fr], Keizersmantel [Nl], Kaisermantel [De], Pafia [It], Nacarada [Es], ∆ασική σεντεφένια [Gr], Cengaver [Tu]

Hamoir, LIEGE ● Belgium

Description: Large butterfly with a wingspan of 54-70 mm, deep orange with black spots on the upper side of its wings. The male is smaller and paler than the female. The female has bolder black spots. The underside is greenish and unlike other fritillaries has silver stripes instead of silver spots, hence the name silver-washed. Amount of silvery markings varies greatly.
The caterpillar is black-brown with two yellow lines along its back and long reddish-brown spines.

The following subspecies were recorded:
A. p. argyrophontes Oberthür, 1923 : South-Western China.
A. p. argyrorrhytes Seitz, 1909 : Northern Caucasus.
A. p. butleri Krulikovsky, 1909 : Central Europe.
A. p. delila Röber, 1896 : Turkey.
A. p. dives Oberthür, 1908 : Algeria.
A. p. formosicola Matsumura
A. p. geisha Hemming, 1934 : Japan.
A. p. masandarensis Gross et Ebert, 1975 : Iran
A. p. megalegoria Fruhstorfer, 1907: China
A. p. neopaphia Fruhstorfer, 1907
A. p. pusilla Wnukowsky, 1927 : North-Western Siberia.
A. p. thalassata Fruhstorfer, 1909 : Southern Europe.
A. p. tsushimana Fruhstorfer, 1906: Japan.
A. p. valesina Esper, 1798
A. p. virescens Nakahara, 1926

Biology: It flies from mid-June to mid August. Adults feed on the nectar of bramble, thistles and knapweeds and also on aphid honeydew. The silver-washed is a strong flier and more mobile than other fritillaries and as such can be seen gliding above the tree canopy at high speed. It preferred habitat is thin, sunny deciduous woodland especially oaks but has been known to live in coniferous woodland.
The male possesses scent scales on the upper side of the forewing that run along veins one to four. The scent produced from these scales attracts females and helps to distinguish it from other species. Unusually for a butterfly, the female does not lay her eggs on the leaves or stem of the caterpillar's food source (in this case violets) but instead one or two meters above the woodland floor in the crevices of tree bark close to clumps of violets.
When the egg hatches in August, the caterpillar immediately goes into hibernation until spring. Upon awakening it will drop to the ground and feeds on violets close to the base of the tree. The caterpillar usually feeds at night and usually conceals itself during the day away from its food source but during cool weather will bask in the sunny spots on the forest floor on dry, dead leaves. It will make its chrysalis amongst the ground vegetation and the adults will emerge in June.

Habitat: Woodland clearings and edges.

Distribution: Eurasia and Algeria. From Ireland to Balkans and Turkey, from South Scandinavia to Northern Spain. It is in decline for much of the 1970s and 1980s but seems to be coming back to many of its old territories.

References:
Baytaş A., 2007. A field guide to the butterflies of Turkey, NTV Yayınları, Istanbul.
Wikipedia, Silver-washed Fritillary




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