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Fasciation on Bellis perennis Linnaeus, 1753

Bellis perennis-fasciation.jpg <i><b>Emmelina monodactyla</i></b> Linnaeus, 1758||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727203911-64d4f58e-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Meconopsis cambrica</i></b> (L.) Vig., 1814 ||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727192544-210bcb09-th.jpg><i><b>Emmelina monodactyla</i></b> Linnaeus, 1758||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727203911-64d4f58e-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Meconopsis cambrica</i></b> (L.) Vig., 1814 ||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727192544-210bcb09-th.jpg><i><b>Emmelina monodactyla</i></b> Linnaeus, 1758||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727203911-64d4f58e-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Meconopsis cambrica</i></b> (L.) Vig., 1814 ||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727192544-210bcb09-th.jpg><i><b>Emmelina monodactyla</i></b> Linnaeus, 1758||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727203911-64d4f58e-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Meconopsis cambrica</i></b> (L.) Vig., 1814 ||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727192544-210bcb09-th.jpg><i><b>Emmelina monodactyla</i></b> Linnaeus, 1758||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727203911-64d4f58e-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Meconopsis cambrica</i></b> (L.) Vig., 1814 ||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727192544-210bcb09-th.jpg><i><b>Emmelina monodactyla</i></b> Linnaeus, 1758||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727203911-64d4f58e-th.jpg>Thumbnails<i><b>Meconopsis cambrica</i></b> (L.) Vig., 1814 ||<img src=./_datas/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux/i/uploads/t/6/y/t6ynvw9sux//2011/07/27/20110727192544-210bcb09-th.jpg>

Fasciation on Bellis perennis Linnaeus, 1753

Meise, BRABANT ● Belgium

Fasciation

Description: Analogous to cancer in animals, fasciation is a term used to describe abnormal or uncontrolled proliferation of cells and tissue growth in plants. Fasciation can occur in roots, leaves, lowers, fruits, cotyledons, and underground stems, and it is particularly noticeable in the stems and branches of plants having indeterminate growth (Jones 1935; White 1943). Morphologically, fasciation may be manifested as a flat, banded or ribbon like expansion of the stem and/or the inflorescence of a plant. According to Gorter (1965) “true fasciations” result from a lateral expansion of the apical meristem. Linear fasciations are the most common type wherein the stem, in addition to being broadened in one plane, is often twisted and curled (LaMotte et al. 1988). Besides disorganized tissue growth, a most striking feature of fasciated plants is an unusual increase in weight and/or volume of tissue (White 1943). Fasciation was extensively studied in the early 20th century under the subject of plant teratology (Wordsell 1915, 1916).
Fasciation is widespread geographically and occurs in at least 107 plant families; it has been reported from herbs, shrubs, vines, and trees, although the most striking fasciations probably occur among biennials (White 1943; 1948).

Causes: Fasciation in plants may have a genetic basis, or it could be caused by an environmental factor or bacterial infection. Rhodococcus fascians is a pathogenic bacterium that causes fasciation in several monocots and dicots ranging across 40 families and 86 genera (Putnam and Miller 2007).
When fasciation is not caused by bacteria, it often has a genetic basis. Several true- breeding homozygous races of fasciated plants were reported by White (1943, 1948) and a few have identified the specific gene responsible (Wyongyai et al.1984; Laufs et al. 1998; Tang & Knap 1998).
Compared to the genetic and pathological basis of fasciation, environmental causes of fasciation are less well understood. Damage, herbivory and increases in available nutrients are a few of the environmental factors that have been suggested to induce fasciation (White 1948). In Oenothera species, microscopic injuries caused by a moth (Mompha sp.) were regarded as the primary cause of fasciation, and an increase in nutrient availability also increased the number of fasciated plants (Knox 1908). In Raphanus raphanistrum, every fasciated shoot was associated with beetle larvae burrowing through the center and then upwards to the growing point (Molliard 1900). Nematodes were reported to induce stem fasciation in Henry's lily (Lilium henryi) (Stumm-Tegethoff & Linskens, 1985).

References:
Ansari S. & Daehler C. C., 2011. Fasciation in Invading Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus: Scrophulariaceae): Testing the Roles of Genetic and Environmental Factors, Pacific Science, vol. 65.




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